I have fond memories of finding, then observing a bumble bee nest as a child.
I remember it very clearly – so much so, that I can even name the species, even though it happened many years ago. It was the nest of a white-tailed bumble bee (Bombus lucorum), and I suspect a queen in the early stages of establishing her colony.
The nest had been made at the base of our privet hedge in what appeared to be a mouse hole. I now know this is common among a number of species – many like to use abandoned rodent holes. They are ideal, in that they consist of a ready-made, underground shelter, complete with nest lining.
Bumblebees are obviously restricted when it comes to gathering their
own nest material, although some species are able to rake up quantities
of moss in order to cover their nests which they make above ground (this
is a particular preference of the carder species, including the rare Bombus sylvarum
- the shrill carder). However, the 'ingredients' for the nest: the
mosses, old grass, perhaps a bit of old fur, needs to be in the right
The photograph below is the nest site of the same species of bumble bee.
Aside from abandoned mouse holes as seen above, some species prefer to nest on open grounder - carders in particular. They will seek out a suitable tuft of grass, sometimes with a natural indentation. However, having a nest out in the open potentially makes such nest sites more vulnerable to predator attack, or indeed, accidental damage if the site is accessible by humans or vehicles.
Some bumble bee species will also nest in natural crevices at the base of tree trunks.
Other species will make use of holes and crevices in rocks and walls.
For aerial nesters, high up crevices and holes in trees - or for that matter, eaves of buildings are preferred sites.
Some species are adaptable. For example, an unused bird nest box may provide a place to nest:
So how do bumblebees go about locating and setting up nests?
Nests are established by an impregnated queen after she has emerged from hibernation and has refuelled herself with nectar and pollen. The nectar will provide her with much needed energy, whilst the pollen will help her ovaries to develop. Once she has recovered from her winter snooze, she’ll go looking for suitable nest sites.
Tell tale signs of bumble bees prospecting for nest sites:
For a variety of reasons, bumblebees have suffered greatly because of habitat destruction. Not only have they lost valuable foraging sites, they have lost nesting sites too. How come?
Modern farming practices have resulted in the grubbing up of many
traditional, mixed hedgerows. The base of hedgerows provide ideal places for small rodents
and voles to make their nests. Fewer hedgerows means fewer small
mammals, and so fewer available nest sites.
Again, for the sake of modern farming practices or for the sake of building and road development, many of the kinds of landscapes providing tussocky grasses (with abundance of flower foraging sources) that provide suitable spots for surface nesting species, have been lost.
example, in the UK, an astonishing 98% of such landscape has
disappeared, along with important bumble bee habitat. Hence, meadows and grasslands have been lost to the detriment
of many bumble bee species.
Woodlands, again because they provide a rich diversity of flora and fauna, provide great habitats. However, it is well known that we have lost many of our woodlands, again for the sake of ‘development’.
The lack of available nest sites has definitely had a very negative impact on populations of bumblebees. Some species however, have been able to adapt somewhat, through necessity, whilst for others this has not been possible.
It’s important to note that fewer than half
of colonies are successful, and nest disturbance is a significant
factor, whether through human activity or predators.
However, we humans can help, by creating bee-friendly gardens, and providing suitable bumblebee nest sites in our gardens.
We will benefit greatly when bumble bees pollinate our plants (especially our soft fruits and beans). They are very docile and will only rarely sting if they feel very threatened.
In particular, we can:
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