What's The Difference Between Bees, Wasps And Hornets?

Wasp grooming its antennae.Beautiful wasp grooming its antennae.

Bees, wasps and hornets belong to the insect order hymenoptera.  

Whilst some species are relatively easy to tell apart, some are actually quite similar (as we'll see below).

It should also be said that there are always exceptions to the general rule, however, here are some key differences for most species:


Plasterer bee, Davies’ colletes - Colletes daviesanus.Plasterer bee, Davies’ colletes - Colletes daviesanus.

Feeding


A key difference between hornets, wasps and bees is in the diet fed to the young.

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In order to feed the young, wasps and hornets are predators of other insects.
 

European hornet - Vespa crabro.European hornet - Vespa crabro.


Whereas wasps and hornets provide a carnivorous diet to their offspring (in the form of other insects), bees feed their offspring on nectar and pollen. 

Bees basically therefore, have a vegetarian diet.  According to 'Bees Of The World', an exception to this is a small group of meliponine bees of the genus Trigona, which also feed their young on other insects instead of pollen.  Research has found these bees may also consumer other forms of meat if available.  You can read more about this here.  However, the bees are usually scavengers rather than killing their own prey as wasps and hornets do.

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Pollen collecting

Bumble bees have modified hairs on the hind legs that carry pollen.Bumble bees have modified hairs on the hind legs that carry pollen.


Whereas pollen is collected by bees, wasps and hornets do not collect pollen (or oils), and therefore, females of wasps and hornets do not possess any specially modified pollen collecting hairs.


Legs

Wasps have long thin legs.Wasps have long thin legs.


Many bee species have stout legs with relatively few spines, whereas wasps and hornets have long thin legs with spines.


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Bees can be mistaken for wasps and vice versa

Gooden's nomad bee - Nomada goodeniana.Gooden's nomad bee - Nomada goodeniana.

Nomada bees (like this one pictured above) have a very waspish appearance, both in their colouring and slender bodies, not at all like the cuddly image we may have of bees.  Yellow-face bees are also rather wasp-like.

Wool carder beeWool carder bee

This wool carder bee could, at first glance, easily be mistaken for a wasp.





Honey beeHoney bee

And in my experience, during talks about bees, audience members frequently mis-identify honey bees, believing them to be wasps, partly because their image of a honey bee actually conforms to the physical appearance of a bumble bee.


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A short while ago, I received this photograph below from a contact in the USA.

  The question was:

‘what kind of bee is this?’

Bald faced hornetBald faced hornet

It is actually not a bee, but a bald faced hornet!  Although it is not a 'true hornet' but in fact is a type of wasp.

However........

here is a picture of a violet carpenter bee:

here is the bumble bee, Bombus barbutellus


Arguably, at first glance it's not surprising we might get confused......especially when we throw in a few exotic species, like the Orchid Bee..



Sometimes it is simply a matter of practice and familiarity that helps us eventually distinguish them from each other, when out in the field.

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