Updated: 25th February 2021
Every year, thousands of honey bee colonies all over the world are transported from one region to another in order to pollinate crops. This raises the question: Why are honey bees the species most commonly chosen to pollinate agricultural crops and is there any sign of this changing? Could we manage without honey bees? Here we look at the importance of honey bee pollination, and why this species is so heavily relied upon by many farmers.
The short answer to the reason why honey bees are so vital in the pollination service they provide, is as follows:
These points are explored in greater detail below.
The honey bee is relied upon during cooler times of the year for pollination of crops when wild bees have not yet emerged from hibernation. This is particularly true of almonds. Authors of 'Bees In Your Backyard' comment:
I have witnessed honey bees foraging in cooler temperatures than mentioned above.
The practice and history of beekeeping has meant that large numbers of honey bees are available to farmers, and can be transported from one field to another.
Even the timing can be controlled. It has led to the development of a whole industry based around honey bee pollination. Some beekeepers specialise in this service.
Honey bees are
one of the most intensely studied creatures on the planet, with a whole group of people (beekeepers) interested in their welfare. Other
insects, however, have not been so widely researched. In reality, this
means there is limited understanding about specific insects and their
efficiency, in pollinating different crops, although this is changing. I was interested to read
the following quote in a book by Professor Dave Goulson “Bumblebees
Behaviour and Ecology”:
However, things are changing, partly perhaps, due to fear of relying too heavily on one species, coupled with motivation to increase crop yield by maximising pollnation. There is a growing movement to help farmers understand how they can encourage local native pollinators onto their land, by providing nest boxes for solitary bees.
Bumble bee colonies can also be purchased, but has sometimes led to negative consequences when a commercially reared species has been moved from one region to another taking with them diseases that have impacted upon the local native species.
It depends on the crop or flower. Bees are adapted in different ways. Honey bees, for example are essential for pollinating almond crops. However, various studies suggest leafcutter bee species are more efficient pollinators of blueberries, and bumble bees are better able to pollinate tomatoes via buzz pollination.
Generally, different bee species are better adapted to pollinate some plants better than others. However, honey bees are extremely important. You can read more about the importance of wild bees and pollination on my page about wild bees.
Pollination of certain crops such as almonds, would become very difficult. The health and fitness of honey bees as a species is therefore crucial, not only for the sake of biodiversity in its own right, but they are important for growing food.
Like other insects, honey bees pollinate plants as they forage on the flowers. As they gather pollen and nectar to return to their hives, they transfer pollen from one flower to another. This initiates the plant pollination process.
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